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英国护理学assignment代写:非传染性疾病中1型糖尿病的原则管理或护理的关键分析

时间:2019-04-19 11:54来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
这项护理学assignment作业将首先分析什么是全球非传染性疾病,然后选择一种特定的非传染性疾病(NCD)。此外,任务还将讨论这种非传染性疾病(1型糖尿病)是什么以及为什么选择它。接下来,它将对1型糖尿病做一个关键的分析,关于如何管理这种疾病和照顾病人。综上所述,总结所有信息,找出要点。
This assignment will analyse what global non-communicable diseases are at first and then select a specific non-communicable disease (NCD). Also the assignment will discuss about what this NCD (type 1 diabetes) is and why it was chosen. Next, it will do a critical analysis of type 1 diabetes, about how to managethis disease and take care of a patient. In conclusion, it will summarize all information to work out key points.
世界卫生组织(2015年,第38页)显示,非传染性疾病(NCD),也称为慢性病,不会在人与人之间传播。这些疾病持续时间长,进展缓慢。报告还指出,有四种主要的非传染性疾病:心血管疾病,如心脏病和中风、癌症、慢性呼吸道疾病(如慢性阻塞性肺病和哮喘)和糖尿病。邓宁(2014年)和美国糖尿病协会(2016年)都表示,1型糖尿病是一种疾病,通常在儿童和年轻成人中被诊断出来,以前被称为青少年糖尿病。根据美国糖尿病协会(2016年),“1型糖尿病是该组织的一个关键焦点,我们超过三分之一的研究对象是糖尿病。tfolio致力于与1型糖尿病相关的项目。然而,Dunning(2014)认为1型糖尿病是一种胰岛素缺乏症。此外,他还指出,“1型糖尿病可能是由于自身免疫或特发性过程”。因此,根据Watkins等人(2004年)和美国糖尿病协会(2016年),选择1型糖尿病进行分析的原因是血管疾病风险增加是正常的。
World Health Organization (2015, P38) shows that ‘non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, are not passed from person to person. They are of long duration and generally slow progression.’ It also states that there are The four main types of no communicable diseases: cardiovascular disease, such as heart disease and stroke), cancer, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma), and diabetes. Dunning (2014) and American Diabetes Association (2016) both state type 1 diabetes is a disease, which isUsually in children and young adults diagnosed, and previously known as juvenile diabetes.According to American Diabetes Association (2016), ‘type 1 diabetes is a critical focus of the organization, and more than one-third of our research portfolio is dedicated to projects relevant to type 1 diabetes’. However, Dunning (2014) argued that type 1 diabetes is a disease of insulin deficiency. Moreover, he also states ‘type 1 diabetes can be due to an autoimmune or idiopathic process’. Therefore, according to Watkins et al (2004) and American Diabetes Association (2016), the reason why type 1 diabetes were chosen to analysis is that it is normal in the increased risk of vascular disease.
Health promotion/Support self-care健康促进/支持自理
美国糖尿病协会(2016年)和Watkins等人(2004年)和Colton(2003年)都表示,饮食调整在糖尿病治疗中发挥了重要作用。作者指出,患者的饮食建议应基于他们目前的饮食习惯。应该考虑一些因素:年龄、职业、财务状况、高血压、血糖和其他一些医疗状况。因此,如果人们想降低患1型糖尿病的风险,最重要的是他们应该优先选择均衡饮食。美国糖尿病协会(2016)显示,1型糖尿病患者的身体不产生胰岛素。它还指出,1型糖尿病可以将食物所吃的糖或淀粉分解成一种简单的糖,称为血糖,用于能量。因此,美国糖尿病协会(2016年)和Watkins等人(2004年)都指出,健康饮食是减少因疾病风险增加而患1型糖尿病可能性的重要途径。此外,美国糖尿病协会(2016年)也表明,定期的身体活动对患者的健康和健康具有重要意义,这表明,如果患者想了解身体的典型血糖,它会对运动作出反应,帮助他们避免血糖过低或过高。
American Diabetes Association (2016) and Watkins et al (2004) and Colton (2003) all state that diet modification has played a significant role in the treatment of diabetes. The author states patient’s dietary recommendations should be based on their current eating habits. There are some factors should be taken consideration: age, occupation, financial status, hypertension, blood glucose and some other medical conditions. Therefore, if people want to reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes, the vital thing is that they should follow a balance diet as a priority. American Diabetes Association (2016) shows the patient’s body does not produce insulin in type 1 diabetes. It also states the type 1 diabetes can breaks down the sugars or starches which foods eat into a simple sugar called blood glucose, which it uses for energy. Therefore, American Diabetes Association (2016) and Watkins et al (2004) both state the healthy diet is an important approach to reduce people who have the possibility of type 1 diabetes because of the increased risk of diseases. Also American Diabetes Association (2016) shows a regular physical activity is significant for patient’s health and wellness, which states that if patient want to know the body’s typical blood glucose, and it will response to exercise which can help them keep their blood glucose from going too low or too high.
 
Watkins et al (2004) and American Diabetes Association (2016) both state patients should know eating and drinking simple sugars (such as fresh fruit juice, sodas, cakes or other foods) that can produce a rapid rise in blood glucose concentrations to cause type 1 diabetes. Also they argued that patient should recognize the risk of this disease to avoid hypoglycemia and control fat metabolism in their regular meal to help them keep a balanced diet. 
According to American Diabetes Association (2016), if the blood glucose is too low, People will experience in or exercise after blood sugar drops, so you have to control your blood sugar, ready to treat hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Therefore, in order to study how different types of activities affect hypoglycemia, people should check their blood sugar before, during and after an exercise session, which argued that there are some ways to deal with it, like put a trial and error system into place which meansPeople need to lower their insulin dose or movement before eating some additional carbohydrates make blood sugar in a safe range, because some exercise appears to cause a decline in blood sugar quickly, but not for some other tools(Calderón-Larrañaga,2015). So if the data can keep in a safe range, it means that people can have a healthy body in their daily life. In addition, people can have a pre-exercise snack if blood glucose levels are trending down before a result worked out. Besides, if people eat a carbohydrate food or drink (like juice or glucose tabs) during their life that will quickly increase your blood glucose. 
Moreover, American Diabetes Association (2016) also states ‘If blood glucose level is less than 100 mg/dl before you start your activity, try having a small carbohydrate snack (about 15 grams) to your blood glucose and reduce your risk for hypoglycemia’, which is vital for them to ensure their body’s circulating insulin levels during the exercise time or exercising for more than 30 minutes. Therefore, it can regard as a best way to remain blood glucose. 
However, American Diabetes Association (2016) also argued that if blood glucose is too high, people may under pressure to cause it high during or after exercise, particularly in a high-intensity exercise. So relax them before exercise can avoid high blood glucose. Also, it suggests that people can check blood or urine for ketones if the blood glucose is high before starting exercise. Then if the results do not have ketones in the blood or urine, it means they can have a good exercise.
Disease management/ Case management
According to Calderón-Larrañagaet.,al (2015), the treatment of type 1 diabetes include: taking insulin, carbohydrate counting, frequent blood glucose monitoring, eating a healthy diet, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight, this country's people with type 1 diabetes need insulin treatment. Moreover, there are several Types of insulin: Rapid-acting insulin, Rapid-acting insulin, Long-acting insulin, Intermediate options. However, option still has some different ways on this insulin, such as injections. Therefore, if want to choose injection, nurses can clean the skin at first, then use a needle and syringe or an insulin pen to inject insulin under patient’s skin to treatment them. Also, the treatment shows that in order to improve blood sugar levels, it can take daily infections like Apidra, Humolog or Novolog. In addition, another way is using an insulin pump to work out the current blood glucose during their eating time. Besides, artificial pancreas is an emerging treatment way to prevent low blood sugar levels occurred. However, it also states some information about other medications, such as pramintide (Symlin), some high blood pressure medications,Aspirin, cholesterol-lowering drugs, blood sugar monitoring, healthy eating and monitoring carbohydrates and physical activity. However, whatever nurses choose to use, they may need to check and record the blood glucose level at least four times a day. In addition, people also should keep a healthy weight, avoid have an obesity even caused type 1 diabetes. 
The American Diabetes Association (2016) suggests that people can check blood glucose levels before meals and snacks, before bed, before exercising or driving by themselves. glucose also shows it is the best way to ensure the blood sugar level remains within the safe range to reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes. When treating diabetes, there might be many factors affect the results of blood sugar level response to food, activity, illness, medications, stress, hormonal changes and alcohol.


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