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educatinmal counselling教育咨询:实践建议指南guidelines for practicam p

时间:2019-09-03 11:23来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
本提案规定了学习合同,包括实践的目标和目标。在实际研究中突出了四个关键概念。第一,回顾学校与家长合作的意义;第二,讨论残疾儿童的需求;第三,评估儿童的期望;最后,讨论家长
本提案规定了学习合同,包括实践的目标和目标。在实际研究中突出了四个关键概念。第一,回顾学校与家长合作的意义;第二,讨论残疾儿童的需求;第三,评估儿童的期望;最后,讨论家长与学校的期望。这些概念的讨论基于良好的咨询理论和原则,以提高服务质量或在实践场所或评估计划中启动新的服务。
This proposal specifies the learning contract including the goals and objectives of the practicum. Four key concepts are highlighted for the actual study. First, reviewing the significance of cooperation between school and parents, second, discussing disabled children’s needs, third, evaluation of the expectations of kids and lastly discussing the parents and schools expectations. The discussion of these concepts is based on the good counseling theories and principles to enhance the quality of services or initiating new services in the practicum sites or the evaluation plans.
学校与家长之间的合作是发展和实施支持性教育过程的关键途径之一。学习过程涉及两种不同环境中的互动:学校环境和工作环境(Kyle,Dearing和Zachrisson,2018)。教师每天都要参与学校环境,面对不同性质的现实和挑战。有些挑战需要立即解决,而另一些则需要长期解决,有时需要系统性的改变。“与学校交朋友”的概念着重于在家长、教师和学生之间建立一种和平的联系。据认为,学校与家长之间的紧密合作,提供了一些关于为什么值得做以及如何组织这一过程的提示(Johnsen、Bele和Irene,2013年)。在这种情况下,有效的合作是建立在家长与班主任紧密合作的基础上的,这种合作可以产生积极的效果。
Cooperation between the school and parents is one of the key ways to develop and implement a supportive education process. The learning process involves the interactions in two different environments; the school environment and the workplace environment(Kyle, Dearing and Zachrisson, 2018). The teachers are always involved in the school environment on a daily basis facing realities and challenges of different nature. Some of the challenges would need immediate solutions while others demand long-term solutions which sometimes demand systemic changes. The concept of "make friends with school" focuses on establishing a peaceful link between the parents, teachers, and students. It is deemed that tight cooperation between the school and parents provides some hints on why it is worth doing and how the process can be organized(Johnsen, Bele, and Irene, 2013). In this case, effective cooperation is one that is based on tight cooperation between parents and class teachers, and the cooperation can bring forth positive results.
确保教师和家长之间有效合作以支持学习过程的各种关键目标(Saavala、Turjanma和Alitolpa Niitamo,2017年)。其中一些目标包括:确保家长参与到孩子的学习过程中,统一学校和家庭环境的教育影响,促进合作,承认学生的发展能力,提高家长的教育意识。它传递孩子在学校的进步知识,建立家长对学校期望的信息,并在学校和家长之间建立积极的工作伙伴关系。
There are various critical objectives of ensuring effective cooperation between the teachers and parents to support the learning process(Saavala, Turjanmaa, and Alitolppa-Niitamo, 2017). Some of the objectives include: ensuring parents participate in the learning process of their kids, it unifies the educational influence of schools and home environment, it fosters cooperation in recognition of the development abilities of students, it enhances the educational awareness of parents, it passes knowledge on the progress of the child at school, it establishes information on the expectations of the parents concerning their school and it creates a positive working partnership between the school and the parents. 
Disabled children face various kinds of complex challenges compared to their other colleagues, and they thus need special attention to facilitate their activities to ensure they also achieve their desire for an ordinary and reasonable quality life(Evans and Plumridge, 2007). The services play a critical role in meeting some of the needs of the disabled kids and their families and in ensuring that these kids are not excluded from the opportunities that many other disabled children and their families sometimes take for granted. However, there are a lot of challenges towards ensuring equal opportunities for both the non-disabled and the disabled kids since the limited nature of the variable services and the social attitude continue to exclude the disabled children from various kinds of critical opportunities and thus constraining the lives of their families(Osborne, 2011).
There are various kinds of objectives associated with efforts advocating for the achievement of the needs of the disabled kids. First, there is a need to generate information that provides a complete picture of the nature of circumstances of disabled kids(Lukemeyer, Meyers and Smeeding, 2000). Second, there is need to increase the number of children in this category that receive the family support services like domiciliary services, short-term breaks and number of hours of services to ensure the kids and their families lead an ordinary life. Third, increase the number of disabled kids using whole play and leisure services like the holiday play schemes, pre-school provisions, and afterschool clubs includes appropriate support where necessary(Evans and Plumridge, 2007). Fourth, it is essential to ensure that the parents of the disabled kids get the necessary information about services from the statutory and voluntary sector at an inter-agency level.
Understanding the kid’s expectations and supporting them towards achieving the good expectations is one of the key ways towards helping kids achieve their full potential(Ruppar, Gaffney and Dymond, 2015). When the parents and the teachers believe in a kid or a student, it generates a culture both at home and in the school environment which influences the expectations of the kids. However, it is also critical to create a difference between aspirations and expectations. Aspirations are about wanting to be better while the expectations convey a belief concerning the likelihood of success(VanTassel-Baska, 2013). Students with high aspirations and lower expectations are twice as likely to score poorly than those with both high aspirations and high expectations(Marquardt & Kearsley, 1999). The way that kids think about themselves has a critical impact on the way that they behave(Gansen, 2018). Students who consider themselves in a positive light, it is helpful to create a culture of a growth mindset. Students can improve by working hard and learning from their mistakes. Better expectations can be fostered among kids by encouraging them to reflect more on their processes, focusing less on their natural abilities and developing their self-talk.
There is a need to have the right expectations to achieve successful parent-teacher relationships(Diamond, Randolph, and Spillane, 2004). The parent-teacher relationship has a critical influence on various aspects of the success of the students and sometimes the relationship between the teacher and the students. Some of the key activities that foster better expectations from the parents and the schools are practicing open communication to ensure that the teachers and the parents stay connected. Both the teachers and parents need to provide a welcoming space for learning. They both, teachers and parents need to ensure the kids are comfortable in their academic environment; for instance, kids should consider schools “home away from home”(Gansen, 2018). Parents also need to show commitment to the school, classroom, and children and ask for assistance to understand their kids.
In conclusion, it is evident that the four issues, cooperation between school and parents, disabled children’s needs, expectations of kids and parents and schools expectations are critical concepts for the development of the practicum. Successful research and planning based on these four concepts would go a long way towards improving the learning process of kids since it mainly depends on the culture in which the kids are raised which is based on the home and school environment, the resulting expectations that the kids develop for themselves and the availability of the necessary support from the parents and the teachers in improving and achieving the expectations of the kids.

REFERENCES
Diamond, J., Randolph, A., & Spillane, J. (2004). Teachers' Expectations and Sense of Responsibility for Student Learning: The Importance of Race, Class, and Organizational Habitus. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 35(1), 75-98.
Evans, R., & Plumridge, G. (2007). Inclusion, Social Networks, and Resilience: Strategies, Practices, and Outcomes for Disabled Children and their Families. Social Policy and Society, 6(2), 231-241.
Gansen, H. M. (2018). Push-Ups Versus Clean-Up: Preschool Teachers’ Gendered Beliefs, Expectations for Behavior, and Disciplinary Practices. Sex Roles, 1-16.
Gillan, M., & Gillan, J. (1999). Growing up ethnic in America: contemporary fiction about learning to be American.
Johnsen, A., Bele, A., & Irene, V. (2013). Parents of students who struggle in school: are they satisfied with their children's education and their involvement? Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 15(2), 89.
Kyle, D., Dearing, E., & Zachrisson, H. (2018). Is Parent–Teacher Cooperation in the First Year of School Associated with Children’s Academic Skills and Behavioral Functioning? International Journal of Early Childhood, 50(2), 211-226.


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