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New construction method of Skanska-Near-site fabrication of

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-05-31 16:47:47 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Abstract摘要
物质是一种可再生资源:其自然作用等,可以重复利用自然资源,人类如植物、动物、森林、草原等,一些以可再生资源为原料的物质也可以认定为可再生资源(heet.,al,2016)。材料是在使用较少材料的过程中使用的:消耗的材料越少,可用的资源越多,使用的材料越多。材料在自己生产制造产品的过程中能耗较低,能耗主要是指目前工厂的用电量,因为目前的用电量主要是火电,而火电消耗大量的煤炭,因此降低了材料的能耗。里亚尔,相应耗煤量少,同时减少排放,具有低碳经济的复合特点。材料在自己的生产和制造过程中产品处于低污染状态,具体污染包括:水污染、空气污染、噪声污染、放射性污染、重金属污染等。产品寿命越长,使用寿命越长,在一定时间内消耗的量就越少。Material is a renewable resource: the natural role, etc., can be repeated use of natural resources, human, such as plants, animals, forest, grassland, some materials with renewable resources as raw materials can also be identified as a renewable(Heet.,al, 2016). Materials are used in the process of using fewer materials: the less material is consumed, the more resources are available, and the more materials are utilized. Materials in their own production and manufacturing products in the process of low energy consumption, energy consumption mainly refers to the consumption of electricity in the factory at present, because the current electricity mainly thermal power, and thermal power consumes a large amount of coal, so the lower the energy consumption of the material, corresponding consumed less coal, reduce emissions at the same time, the composite characteristics of low-carbon economy. Materials in their own production and manufacturing products in the process of low pollution, pollution specific include: water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, radioactive pollution, heavy metal pollution, etc. The longer life of the product, the longer it will be used, the less it will be consumed in a certain period of time.  
Table of Contents
Abstract 2
1.0 Introduction 4
2.0 Literature review 5
2.1 Zero and low-carbon buildings 5
3.0 Research method 5
4.0 Discussion 5
5.0 Results 5
6.0 Conclusion 5
 
1.0 Introduction介绍

常用材料,天然高分子材料是唯一的可再生资源,而木材材料是唯一的碳汇容量,而木质材料则符合低碳材料的特点,特别是木材,木材具有所有低碳材料的特点,木材工业具有低能耗的优势。Y可再生资源的消耗、加工,以及小环境污染的独特优势,是环保型低碳产业,未来天然高分子材料等可再生资源将得到广泛应用,特别是木材中的木材,真正的木材材料将越来越多。未来很受欢迎;合成高分子材料作为不可再生资源,将被耗尽,而且通常会污染环境和消耗资源,但这种材料具有重要的功能和作用,未来的发展将具有这种功能和作用的材料取代现有的合成高分子材料;在有机非金属材料是不可再生资源,但相对合成高分子材料而言,此类材料或资源丰富,且污染较小,未来将在一定时期内得到广泛应用;金属材料是不可再生资源,但可以回收利用,有很好的使用前景,未来将越来越多的PA。应注重金属零件的开发,能开发出更简化的工艺,更经济、更强大、材料更为金属零件;目前整体复合材料应用状况良好,但对石油化工产品的依赖性很强,同时,鉴于传统材料的不足。S,New,符合低碳材料的特点,新型复合材料的开发利用将是一个很大的领域(Behera和Sarkar,2016)。

Commonly used materials, natural polymer materials is the only renewable resource, and the wood material is the only a carbon sink capacity, and woodiness material is accord with the characteristics of low carbon materials, especially wood, wood has all the characteristics of the low carbon material, timber industry has the advantages of low energy consumption of renewable resources, processing, and the unique advantage of small environmental pollution, is environmentally friendly low carbon industry, the future of natural polymer materials such as renewable resources of traditional materials will be widely used, especially the wood in the wood, real wood material will become more and more popular in the future; Synthetic polymer materials as the non-renewable resources, will be depleted, and usually will pollute the environment and consume resources, but this kind of material has an important function and role, and the future development have such function and role of material to replace the current synthetic polymer materials; Inorganic nonmetallic materials are non-renewable resources, but relatively synthetic polymer materials, such materials or resources is abundant, and less polluting, the future will be widely used in certain period of time; Metal material is non-renewable resources, but can be recycled, there is good use prospect, the future will be more and more paying attention to the development of the metal parts, can develop more simplified process is more economical, more powerful, materials of metal parts; At present the overall composite materials applied in good condition, but has very strong dependence for petrochemical products, at the same time, in view of the shortcomings of traditional materials, new, accord with the characteristics of low carbon materials development and utilization of new composite materials will be a lot(Behera&Sarkar, 2016).
 
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Zero and low-carbon buildings
In the construction sector, green and low-carbon building materials are materials that are not contaminated with the outside world, and are not radioactive hazards, and are called ecological building materials(Ramírez-Godínez,et.,al, 2015). At the same time, to complete its use functions and become a waste of time, can undertake reasonable and efficient recycling, classified according to different features, achieve the goal of recycling. For this kind of new environmental protection material, the preparation stage, the production stage and the sales channel should pass the more strict control. To ensure the cleanliness of each link, as the basis of the technical standard, make its indexes conform to the industry rules and norms and avoid deviations(Maet.,al, 2015). In the construction sector, the state vigorously promotes the use of energy-saving energy and the emission of pollutants such as waste gases. This led to the development of green, low-carbon building materials. People are increasingly looking at low-carbon life as a new fad. Consumption attitudes have changed. Research in the field of technology to meet this need, the numerous green low carbon building materials, such as organic glass, such as ecological cement, and put into production, can be widely applied in the field of architecture. Compared with traditional construction materials, green low carbon building materials reduces the building itself and the pollution of surroundings, assure indoor environmental non-toxic, and is conducive to the user's physical and mental health(Tikhomirovet.,al, 2016). Often, this material is superior in energy efficiency, energy consumption and safety. Can purify room air clearly, protect environment. It is widely used in house construction and home improvement. The new green and low carbon building materials show the improvement of the technical level of the construction area, which is the focus of the development of the construction materials(Ul'yanov, Zakharov, &Pospelova, 2015).
2.2 Natural polymer materials
The common feature of natural polymers is that the material is renewable, which guarantees the source of permanent raw materials; In the manufacturing process, because the material is soft, easy to process and consumes less energy; Because they're natural materials and they're less polluted; When used, the material does not produce new pollution; Abandoned after basic can all be recycled, be able to make other material or fuel can do, even if some materials cannot be recycled, but because it is a natural material will not have damage to the environment and in all such material belongs to a good low carbon materials(Ryaposov, Kleiner, &Shatsov, 2013).
2.3 Low carbon modified mother grain
Low carbon plastic is treated with modified non-metallic inorganic mineral powders, and plastic raw materials mixed use, thereby reducing plastic heat enthalpy, plastic raw materials to reduce costs, save energy consumption in machining process of, and don't reduce the physical properties of plastic manufactured goods(Shiet.,al, 2012). When plastic waste incineration is processed, carbon dioxide emissions can be greatly reduced.
2.4 Environmental degradation mother grain
Low carbon environmental degradation plastic refers to the same or similar, the physical indexes and general plastics in inventory and probation performance stability, abandoned, in the natural environment, the sun, the soil moisture, oxygen, microorganisms, in 3 ~ 6 months, the degradation of the natural environment in pairs harmless low molecular substances, the final degradation of new plastic for carbon dioxide and water (Baojianet.,al, 2016). There are three types of low-carbon biodegradable plastics that have been successfully marketed: biodegradable plastics. This product cheaper than ordinary plastic, made of it after the packaging waste, in the natural environment, generate 3-6 months, phenol, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, ester, such as new materials, under the biological assimilation, into a good organic fertilizer plant growth, the resulting carbon dioxide and water and starch degradable plastics. The product is modified with a 60% ratio of starch to polyethylene(Yuxiang&Jianhong, 2015).#p#分页标题#e#
 
3.0 Research method
3.1 Case Study 
"It is a comprehensive sustainable development of community; we have to create an entirely new way of life, to design a high quality of life, low energy consumption, zero emissions, renewable energy and zero waste, biological diversity in the future(Lukashevich,Leonets', &Chaus, 2015)." BedZED's designer, dunst, describes BedZED. In the BedZED project, we see designers make full use of waste, sunlight, air and water, and make sustainable conversations with modern humans and buildings. Waste BedZED one of the major causes of low energy consumption is the combination of thermal power plants has played a huge role, by burning wood waste power generation to provide electricity for community residents, and use the heat energy produced in the process to produce hot water. Hot water tanks are located at the core of each household and can be used for heating during cold season. At present in the region near the fuel for the CHP is mainly for the trim trees waste, usual these wastes are discarded and landfill and become the burden of the city, to exploit the waste can produce energy, and can solve the problem of environmental pollution and waste disposal. In the long-term plan, the source of the raw materials will be mainly in the nearby ecological park. The entire community, by calculation, needs a three-year old forest of 70 hectares, a third of which is used to provide heat and new saplings for recycling. Sunshine BedZED families have installed the solar photovoltaic panels, by the light panels cost is higher, so the designer will it used for a variety of purposes, as far as possible the hot water in the home and trolley charging from the warm sunshine. These solar panels can provide power for 40 vehicles, which use solar power supply model of car to solar photovoltaic panels from the usual 75 investment recovery cycle shortened BedZED in 6.5 years. Although the UK is very cold in winter, BedZED is well designed and has no central heating system. The roof of BedZED, wall and ground all adopt high-quality insulation material, assure the comfortable temperature of winter housing. Its exterior wall is a kind of sandwich structure, the inner core of the wall inside 300mm thick mineral wool insulation fibre, guaranteed the heat that absorbs will not dissipate in 5 days; The exterior window is wood window frame, have good break heat construction; Window glass has 3 layers, absorb as much heat as possible, in summer, these designs can reduce the conduction of outdoor heat as far as possible, avoid the use of air conditioning. But another way to keep the indoor temperature is the roof greening, will be called "stonecrop" half a succulent plant cover on the roof, greatly reducing the indoor heat loss in winter, summer flowering, the whole ecological village became a beautiful big garden. This is the main reason why residents are saving 90% of their energy from heating and cooling. Water in London is abundant, and BedZED is reduced by a third less than normal homes by recycling water and sewage. Every time at the end of the rainfall, water facilities located in the roof and garden set would send rain into the house under the water container, after purification filters filter automatically, you can directly to clean toilet, irrigation trees and used as a water park. On the roof of the air BedZED, the rows of brightly colored, strange-looking hot pressure "Wind Cowl" kept fresh air in the first room. This passive ventilation completely driven by wind, but the change of wind direction and the rotation, using the wind to building to provide fresh air, exhaust pollution of indoor air. In addition, there is a heat exchanger inside, which can recycle 50 to 70 percent of the heat from the exhaust gas, to warm up the fresh air outside. Guide the green traffic in order to reduce the modern way of life, BedZED in guarantee under the premise of residents travel convenience, guide the green transportation, effectively reduce the use of private cars, more become a feature of BedZED. The joint development of apartments and office space provides residents with opportunities to work in the community or even their own homes; Facilities such as shops, coffee shops and fitness centers with childcare facilities have further reduced the demand for transport. The property management company organizes local supplies for the shops in the neighborhood and offers fresh green vegetables, fruits and other food delivered to the door. The convenient bus system also makes people less dependent on cars; Convenience of bicycles and electric vehicles use opportunities, provide other options for private owners, BedZED has enough bicycle parking lot, and have connected to the other area of bicycle roads; Car pool offers a chance to share a car. "If the first person in this world live in ordinary homes, overly BedZED residents now way of life, that we need 3 as big as the earth planet, to maintain our basic survival needs. But we have only one earth." "Says BedZED designer dunst. Attention to the problem of energy in the world today, BedZED is completed and outstanding performance makes us see the hope, perhaps it is the prototype of the future human living mode(Goli-Oglu, &Bokachev, 2015).
 
Figure 1: the BedZED project
 
 
Green building materials, as the newly emerging industries, occupy an important position in the construction materials industry. From the production and market situation at home and abroad, mainly include green fiber materials, heat insulation wall material, green material, green pure and fresh and decoration materials, widely used in the building.  
(1) Green high-tech pipes. The past construction basic metal is steel pipe pipe materials, not only waste a lot of metal raw material, and some metal materials are easy to rust, caused by drinking water quality, there is a hidden danger to human health. At present, China has developed a new type of "plastic metal complex pipe", which replaces traditional metal pipes with this high-tech pipeline. The middle pipe for aluminum, both inside and outside two layer of high density polyethylene, organic combination of aluminum, plastic and metal has the double properties, will not rust and make the water polluted.  
(2) Green ecological cement. Traditional cement production requires a lot of mineral resources and seriously polluting the environment. Some building materials production enterprises with volcanic carbon, solid wastes, such as raw material of ecological cement, both traditional cement concrete performance, and greatly saves the mineral resources, reduction
Reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions from production, and save energy from production.  
(3) Green wall materials. These building materials are generally early concrete hollow brick, fly ash or slag ash as the main body, a green wall, light quality, high strength, good sound insulation and the features of energy-saving benefit, the main basic into a large housing construction.  Of course, with the constant progress of science and technology, more and more kinds of green building materials, such as insulating glass, prevent bacteria ceramics, net wall paint, etc., continuously onto the road of "green" building materials. The development prospect of green and low carbon building materials is developed.
At present, China has vigorously developed and manufactured various green and low carbon building materials. Building materials production enterprises by reference, the introduction, research and development, successfully launched environmental protection, health and high technology content products, such as cement, coating, glass, cement, compound floor, etc., favored by the construction industry. According to the development of foreign green building materials, the development trend of green and low carbon building materials in China is presented.  
First, resource saving materials,the development of materials for building materials is mainly mineral resources, which, if unchecked, can cause ecological environmental damage and deterioration. Vigorously develop energy-saving green building materials can not only save, reduce raw material resources, also can use a substitute for raw materials to production, such as urban construction waste, living garbage, solid wastes, etc., with modern high-tech to reproduce.  
Second, energy saving materials, is mainly refers to in the process of production, pay attention to reduce energy consumption, local materials production, as far as possible to reduce the cost in the process of logistics, from the source to reduce the total energy consumption of buildings. Energy-saving materials have an advantage in cost cutting and development space is broad.  
The third is spatial functional material. As people living standard rise, to the work environment, the living environment of the comfort requirements are higher, construction companies in the development of the building, often with some high-tech environmental protection heat insulation materials, insulation materials, light material, material suction light, etc., try to build livable environment. These high-tech space design materials have a promising future, catering to people's pursuit of quality and detail.  
Fourth, the new material of environmental protection, under the condition of the economic conditions permit, in the workplace and individual family is decorated in, non-toxic, no pollution, no radioactive material of green building has become the first choice, the material in the market share will be more and more big, will be fully into the living areas of people's life.  
In general, the promotion of green building materials, the development of low consumption buildings and the construction of an emissions-reduction society, have been the whole social consensus and the goal. In this context, is closely related to people's life of the building, green low carbon building materials has sang industry theme, reflects the era people attach importance to environmental protection, the concept of healthy living. Therefore, the green and low carbon building materials occupy an increasingly important position in the future building materials, and have broad industry development prospect(Assis, Jasinevicius, & Rodrigues, 2015).#p#分页标题#e#
 
4.0 Discussion and result
The low carbon material can used due to following aspect:
(1)The need for policy of adaptation. In recent years, the state vigorously promote the development of low carbon, energy saving, environmental protection industry, the quality of building materials demand is higher and higher, have all kinds of building materials professional quality standard testing agency, strictly all kinds of building materials from production, circulation to use link system monitoring. At the same time, the green and low-carbon building materials are gradually being recognized by the builders and consumers. Therefore, the construction industry in the production and business operation activities, to have the consciousness of promotion and use of green low carbon materials, with the country and the construction industry consistent advocate the concept of green environmental protection, energy conservation and emissions reduction, by examining the production and business operation success easily.
(2) the need for market competition. Under the condition of market economy, construction industry competition is fierce, some of the construction industry in order to win a place in the construction market and the development opportunity, began in the aspect of building materials, big green low carbon environmental protection billboard, building energy conservation and emissions reduction enterprise new image, aims to seek breakthrough development in the new period, win the new profit growth point. In bidding for a project, as some enterprises, the key to advocate green environmental protection idea, emphasizes social responsibility and historic mission of the production and business operation behavior, to find from the aspects of building materials with competitive advantage. If companies do not change their minds, or take traditional materials to compete in the market, they will inevitably be eliminated by the market and abandoned by the trend of The Times. 
(3) The need to adapt to the trend of The Times. With the improvement of living standards, people are paying more attention to health issues and deepening their understanding of the importance of ecological environment. In their consumption when select material property or home, in addition to weigh the prices of building materials, more consideration to the pollution levels of material, radiation health problems, such as size, want to choose both, reasonable prices and energy conservation and emission reduction, green environmental protection material. Some clever sales staff, will use the mental characteristics of customers, from the aspects of green low carbon to cater to consumer psychology, to impress customers, they buy determination(Jackiewicz, 2007). 
(4) The need for sustainable development. China has a large population and a small proportion of its resources per capita. The future development must be a path to sustainable development. Recyclable and recycled building materials are the trend of future construction production and usage. In addition, China's previous extensive economic model has caused environmental pollution and destruction and wasted resources. Therefore, the current production and operation activities, stricter requirements for energy conservation and emission reduction, and the application of green and low-carbon building materials are consistent with this requirement(Mathew, &Rajendrakumar, 2014).
5.0 Conclusions 
In summary, Architectural design of the concept of "low carbon", it is necessary to strengthen the comprehensive utilization of renewable energy, low carbon design, especially in the process of high energy saving design, optimization of the development and utilization of renewable energy, the use of new technology and new energy materials is very important. Rational choice of energy saving system is solved. Generally speaking, in different areas, building energy consumption is not the same, it will need to adjust measures to local conditions, combining the characteristics of different regions, to adopt scientific and effective way of energy utilization. For example: in some northern cities, due to the cold weather and the proportion of heating energy consumption is fairly large, especially for carbon consumption is the largest, it is need to consider the design of the heat preservation function, constantly looking for new alternative energy sources at the same time, in order to reduce carbon emissions. We will strengthen comprehensive utilization of renewable energy. In the construction of the whole life, we must fully consider the non-renewable fossil fuels, such as wind, solar and related personnel: hydropower, biomass energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, etc., and make reasonable use, architectural design, the full implementation of the real low carbon building design, maximize the harmony with the environment of the building.
Reference
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