指导
网站地图
英国作业 美国作业 加拿大作业
返回首页

英国硕士课程作业:A study on tourism motivation of Chinese students s

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-04-16 16:47:23 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Abstract摘要
本研究以推拉模式、旅游职业阶梯理论为基础,探讨1990年后英国留学生旅游动机。截至2015年底,在英国学习的中国1990年后一代学生达12万人。中国学生消费力强,对英国文化、社会和商品有很高的兴趣和热情。因此,研究和了解中国学生在英国的旅游动机,将有助于英国当地相关旅游企业和组织开展有针对性的营销活动和提供服务,并帮助相关组织更好地帮助中国学生适应在英国的学习和生活。本研究将以推拉模式、旅游职业阶梯理论为基础,通过定量与定性相结合的研究方法,更好地了解中国学生的旅游动机以及为什么会有这样的动机,以及如何激发中国学生的旅游动机。本研究将问卷调查与半结构访谈相结合,采用t检验、方差分析、层次分析法等数据分析方法。研究预计总共需要75天的时间,在研究过程中可能遇到的伦理问题将通过适当的措施加以解决。
This study aims to be based on push-pull model, travel career ladder theory to study the tourism motivation of Chinese students of post-1990 generation studying in the United Kingdom. By the end of 2015, there were 120,000 Chinese students of post-1990 generation who studied in the UK. Chinese students have strong spending power, a high interest and enthusiasm for UK's culture, society and commodity. Thus, to study and understand tourism motivation of Chinese students in the UK will help relevant local tourism enterprises and organizations in the UK to carry out targeted marketing activities and provide services as well as help relevant organizations to better help Chinese students to adapt to their studying and living in the UK. In this study, it will be based on the push-pull model, travel career ladder theory, through combining quantitative with qualitative research methods to better understand what tourism motivations that Chinese students have and why they have such motivations, as well as how to motivate Chinese students’ tourism motivation. The study will use questionnaire and semi-structured interview in data collection, the data analysis methods used include T test, variance analysis and analytic hierarchy process and so on. The study is expected to cost a total of 75 days, ethical issues which might be encountered in the course of the study will be dealt with by using appropriate measures.
Keywords: tourism motivation; Chinese students of post-1990 generation; the United Kingdom; push-pull model; travel career ladder theory
 
1.0 Introduction介绍
1.1 Background 背景
英国是世界上最重要的旅游目的地和旅游出口国之一,旅游业发达。旅游业在英国的政治、经济和社会生活中扮演着越来越重要的角色,它被称为英国“最赚钱”的产业之一。多年来,英国的旅游收入仅次于化工和金融业。2015年,外国游客在英国消费超过210亿英镑,但近年来,受全球经济危机的影响,英国旅游业也受到了一些负面影响,游客到达率和旅游收入增速放缓,对于目前的英国旅游业来说,寻找新的经济增长点是当务之急。需要考虑的问题(文化、媒体和体育部和Helen Grant,2014年)。英国的教育水平很高,英国是国际学生选择留学的最佳目的地之一,在英国留学的中国学生达1500万人,其中90年代或之后出生的中国学生约12万人,已成为英国留学生中最大的一部分(高等教育)。关于统计局,2015年)。这些1990年后一代的中国留学生不仅在英国学习,而且在英国消费、旅游,对于旅游业来说,面向1990年后一代中国留学生的旅游市场是值得关注的。Mitra和Buliung(2015)指出,青年旅游者有很长的旅游周期,他们也有很高的环境意识和探索的勇气,他们创造了非常可观的经济效益。因此,对于英国旅游业而言,应重点发展面向英国1990年后一代中国学生的旅游业务。UK is one of the world's most important tourist destinations and tourism-exporting countries, the tourism industry is well developed. Tourism plays an increasingly important role in British political, economic and social life, it is known as one of the "most profitable" industries in the country. For years British tourism revenue is second only to revenues of the chemical and financial industries. In 2015, foreign tourists spent more than £ 21 billion in the UK, but in recent years, affected by the global economic crisis, the British tourism industry has also suffered some negative impact, the growth rate of tourist arrivals and tourism revenue slows down, for current British tourism, the search for new economic growth point is the urgent problem needed to be thought about (Department for Culture, Media & Sport and Helen Grant, 2014). There is a high level of education in UK, UK is one of the best destinations that international students choose to study in, the number of Chinese students studying in UK reach 15 million, of which Chinese students who were born in or after the 1990s are about 120,000, they have become the largest part of the foreign students in UK (Higher education statistics agency, 2015). These Chinese students of post-1990 generation not only study in the UK, they also consume, travel in the UK, for the travel industry, travel market towards Chinese students of post-1990 generation is worth of paying enough attention. Mitra and Buliung (2015) point out that youth travelers have a long period of tourism, they also have a high degree of environmental awareness and the courage to explore, they create very impressive economic benefits. Therefore, for the tourism industry in UK, it should emphasize the development of tourism business aiming at Chinese students of post-1990 generation in the UK.
1.2 Rational
Market segments have a very important significance for success of tourism business. Market segmentation helps enterprises to find the best market opportunities and seize market opportunities, thereby increasing market share to achieve great economic efficiency. Market segmentation methods used commonly are based geographical environment, demographics, consumer behavior and consumer psychology of tourists (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). Currently, tourism enterprises are mainly based on differences in tourist demand and combine with social attributes, physical characteristics and other aspects of tourists to segment travel market, such as the elderly tourist market, women market, business market and so on. However, the current British tour companies have paid insufficient attention to the travel market towards Chinese students of post-1990 generation who grew up in the special social and historical background in China and now study in UK. With the rising number of tourists of post-1990 generation and increased capacity of tourist spending, from the perspective of Chinese students of post-1990 generation to develop marketing strategies will become a new topic for British travel companies. Thus, it is essential to explore the tourism motivation of this group of Chinese students studying in UK, and it also has a positive theoretical and practical significance. Considering from the theoretical sense, the results of this study is reflected in that it is based on push-pull theory, travel career ladder model (Caber and Albayrak, 2016; Williams and McNeil, 2012) to explore the tourism motivation of post-1990 generation Chinese students studying in the UK, which to a certain extent, supply and enrich researches on different tourism market segmentation. From a practical sense, based on the research in this study, it can explicitly understand the travel motivations, needs, consumer behavior characteristics of post-1990 generation Chinese students studying in the UK, so as to provide valuable guidance and reference for relevant tourism enterprises to carry out marketing for corresponding products or services.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Concept of tourism motivation
Tourism motivation is the direct driving force promoting people to travel, stimulated by tourism motivation, people take action after determine a travel target, making their travel needs satisfied, thus eliminating tension (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). Bao (2009) notes that factor affecting tourism motivation includes individual psychological and personal factors, as well as some external factors. If a person wants to travel, he must have both subjective and objective conditions. Subjectively, he must have a need to travel; objectively, he must have a certain ability to pay and leisure time, as well a health condition, etc. Study on consumers’ tourism motivation is the key for tourism enterprises to a comprehensive understanding of what consumer needs to carry out accurate market segments to provide timely introduction of tourism project to meet the needs of a target market to increase market penetration (Caber and Albayrak, 2016; Devesa, Laguna and Palacios, 2010).
2.2 Push-pull theory
There are several theories on tourism motivation, such as drive theory, arousal theory, inducement theory, expectancy value theory, attribution theory and achievement goal theory, etc., push-pull theory is one of the most famous theories (Mohamed and Othman, 2012). In this model, the factors pushing refer to needs caused by internal imbalance or tension, which are internal factors affecting people’s going for tourism, the internal factors include escaping from everyday environment, carrying out social communication and so on (Chen and Chen, 2015). Pulling factors link to attributes and characteristics of a destination, there are factors affecting people to choose which particular destination, such as a unique natural landscape, historic monuments and so on (Bao, 2009). Pulling factors are extrinsic factors affecting travel motivation (Bao, 2009; Seebaluck, Munhurrun, Naidoo, and Rughoonauth, 2015). The theory appeared in the 1970s, after that, it has been improved by scholars, up to now, push-pull theory has been widely applied to the study on tourism motivation (Caber and Albayrak, 2016).#p#分页标题#e#
2.3 Travel career ladder theory
Williams and McNeil (2012) are based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory to divide tourism motivation into five grades. First is self-realization: it is to achieve the dream of a person to have a better understanding of himself and experience inner peace and harmony. Second is self-esteem and self-development: it is emphasis on the development of his skills and knowledge, hoping to have the ability to control everything, be respected by other people and to be creative. Third is interpersonal relationship: a tourist wants to build and expand his relationships, he actively interacts with others and participate in activities together with others to share happy times. Fourth is stimulation needs: a tourist wants safety but it should not be boring, he wants stimulation but he does not want real danger, he wants fun and excitement. The last is relaxation needs: a tourist wants to get rest, recovery, personal care. He pays attention to basic services and food, sanitary, space, and enjoying the temporary escape from daily work and life. As experience of tourism increases, people tend to have tourism motivation of a higher level. Usually, when their tourism motivation of lower levels is met, they will have a higher level of motivation (Williams and McNeil, 2012).
2.4 Research on tourism motivation of young people
18-30 year olds people are the mainstream of tourists, a latest survey from World Youth Student and Educational Travel Federal shows that among international visitors in the world, young people aged 16 to 25 years old account for more than 20%, the organization also points out that young tourists play a key role in promoting the development of international tourism (Huang and Cai, 2011). Since 1990, young tourist market size enhanced with an annual growth rate of 20% to 25%. World Tourism Organization also points out that young tourist market is the fastest growing tourism market segmentation (Huang and Cai, 2011). In the UK, there is even a tourism enterprise called 18-30-year-old club which dedicates to provide services for tourists of this age group. 18 to 30-year-old club is the first firm tourism enterprise specializing in provision of holiday activities for youth, it already has nearly 30 years of history, its management philosophy is fully in line with young people's behavior way, it helps young people to get to know more friends and provides enriched arrangements for their daily lives, rather than just organizes plain sightseeing tissue activities (Thrane, 2016). 
China's tourists who were born in or after the 1990s (post-1990 generation) have in common with the World Youth tourists, because of its special growing environment, China's post-1990 generation has a certain specificity  It has been found through study that, in the choice of destinations and tourism products, China's post-1990 generation is more susceptible to "fashion factor". Post-1990 generation travels primarily for the pursuit of freedom and happiness, growing up (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). With the emergence of a large number of the tourism group of post-1990 generation and the rapid development of youth tourism market, some new way of travelling and tourism consumer behavior appear, which is related with the psychological characteristics, consumer behavior of post-1990 generation (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). For example, post-1990 generation tend to choose independent travel or half independent travel, they like selecting and arranging travel activities by themselves; or through the network to find friends with common travel interest with them to travel together, and the senior partners will act as team leaders; some tourists of post-1990 generation are introduced via a network or friends to look for tourists with houses, cars in the destinations they want to go, through exchange of using houses, cars with each other in the destinations, they achieve the purpose of savings time and money (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). As the spending power of post-1990 generation enhances, consumer motivation of post-1990 generation is quite different from traditional tourists in travel mode, while there are also significant differences in terms of tourism consumption between them, such as the differences in modes of payment for consumption, ways of access to information (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). Post-1990 generation have an universal access to information from the network, according to survey from the World Youth Student and Educational Travel Federal, the main way of more than 80% of young tourists’ access to information is the network, especially for the post-1990 generation in China, they are the generation who grow up along with the development of the Internet in China, their frequency of using the network is much higher than other groups (Munar and Jacobsen, 2014). In travelling, post-1990 generation generally buy less souvenirs and more favorite products during their travelling, with the prevalence of credit card spending, the proportion of credit card spending behavior of post-1990 generation in tourism consumption has been greatly improved (Heo and Lee, 2016). There is a certain link between these changes in consumer behavior and the relatively unique consumer psychology, consumer motivation and growth environment, family structure of post-1990 generation.
2.5 Gap
What push-pull theory contributes to research on tourism motivation is provision of a framework for thinking, from both subjective and objective perspectives to study factors affecting tourism motivation, its disadvantage is that it is only from a static point of view to study tourism motivation, and it can be seen from Williams and McNeil’s (2012) study that human tourism motivation is changing or upgrading, so based on past push-pull theory to explore the current travel motivation of Chinese students of post-1990 generation in UK is inappropriate. In the past, researches on tourism motivations of young travelers were more on needs for relaxation, interpersonal relationship, needs for stimulation, but there was not much on young people’s needs for self-esteem, self-development and self-actualization. This study will combine with push-pull theory, travel career ladder model to analyze the tourism motivation of Chinese students of post-1990 generation in UK to have a more comprehensive understanding of the travel motivation that they have and why they have such motivations, as well as how to stimulate their tourism motivation.
2.6 Research question
Based on understanding of the research background and the literature review, the author summarizes the research questions of this study as follows:
-What are tourism motivations of Chinese students of post-1990 generation studying in the UK?
-What is the unique of their tourism motivations?
-Why do they have such unique motivations?
-What problems do Chinese students of post-1990 generation meet in living and traveling in the UK?
-How do travel agencies and companies in the UK inspire their tourism motivation and meet their travel needs?
 
 
3.0 Methodology
3.1 Research aims 
This study aims to explore the tourism motivations of Chinese students of post-1990 generation studying in UK based on push-pull model and travel career ladder theory. Based on the above research aim, the following research objectives are designed.
Objective 1: from the perspective of push factors to explore what tourism motivations that Chinese students of post-1990 generation have in traveling in UK;
Objective 2: from the perspective of pull factors to analyze what tourism motivations that Chinese students of post-1990 generation have in traveling in UK;
Objective 3: to discuss what characteristics of tourism motivations that Chinese students of post-1990 generation have when they compare with Chinese students studying in UK in the past;
Objective 4: to recommend on how to provide services and guidance for traveling of Chinese students of post-1990 generation in UK. 
3.2 Ontology and epistemology
3.2.1 Ontology
From an ontological point of view, positivism and interpretivism are the most important two types of research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). Positivistic research refers to researches carried out by researchers’ personal collection of first-hand information and data in order to verify the proposed research hypotheses. Positivistic research follows principles of objectivity, universality, repeatability and randomness. Data collection methods used in positivistic research including questionnaires, observation, structured interviews and so on, data analysis methods adopted are mainly quantitative analysis, using a variety of statistical methods to verify research hypotheses (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007).
Interpretivism believes that people’s cognition of the complex world is achieved through a study on experience and perspectives of people living in this world, researchers should thoroughly understand the reality of life and through scientific language and means, such as interviews, participant observation to explain and rebuild these concepts and meanings (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007).
Positivism and interpretivism are usually considered as two kinds of incompatible ontology, but Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2007), Creswell (2003) point out that combining the two kinds of ontology for sociological research is acceptable, and combined research strategy, research approach helps to collect more comprehensive information which may be missed by using only one perspective. Therefore, the ontology of this study will combine positivism with interpretivism to carry out this study.
3.2.2 Epistemology#p#分页标题#e#
Objectivism and structuralism are two kinds of important epistemology, generally speaking, ontology influences and determines the type of epistemology (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). For example, ontology of positivism is generally corresponding with epistemology of objectivism. Ontology of interpretivism is corresponding to epistemology of structuralism (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007). Since in this study, it will combine positivism with interpretivism, it will also take epistemology of combining objectivism with structuralism to determine research strategy and research approach.
Objectivism believes that the world is real, there is a structure and the structure can be recognized, so there is reliable knowledge about the objective world. Epistemology of objectivism comments that knowledge is an objective truth, the truth is manifested through natural and social phenomena, researchers can discover and understand the objective knowledge through certain means of research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007). Research methods commonly used in objectivism study are quantitative methods. Based on epistemology of objectivism, this study will use questionnaires to collect information to understand what tourism motivations that Chinese students of the post-1990 generation have in traveling in UK, as well as factors affecting their travel motivations.
Epistemology of constructivism emphasizes that facts are constructed by people and influenced by the environment, social phenomenon is different from natural phenomena, it has non-repeatability. Epistemology of constructivism figures that different people have self-understanding for a same question, which requires researchers to pay attention to understanding a problem from the perspective of being understood to understand the research object and the context (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007). Constructivism commonly uses qualitative research as a research method, the research tools often used include interview, historical research, ethnographic methods and so on. Based on the epistemology of constructivism, this study will use semi-structured interviews to gather information, according to personal experiences of Chinese students of the post-1990 generation to understand their tourism motivations in the current environment, as well as the factors affecting their motivations and why these factors affect their tourism motivations.
3.3 Research method 
3.3.1 Quantitative Study
Quantitative research is based on epistemology of positivism, it is mainly by collecting quantifiable data or information and quantifying, testing analyzing data to acquire significant conclusions (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007).
3.3.2 Qualitative research
Qualitative research is qualitative evaluation based on the epistemology basis of humanism, such as hermeneutics, phenomenology and constructivism theory. It takes generally recognized axioms, a set of deductive logic and a lot of historical facts as the basis of analysis for description, interpretation of things being researched (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007).
Quantitative research and qualitative research have their own advantages and disadvantages. Quantitative research is conducive to collecting a lot of data, and through analysis of the data to find objective laws, but it is not conducive to further exploration of the causes of a problem. Qualitative research is beneficial for further investigation of the causes leading to a problem, but the data obtained is limited, leading to unrepresentative conclusions (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2007). Thus in this study, it will use both quantitative and qualitative research methods to play the roles of their strengths and compensate for their shortcomings, making the research conclusions more reliable and true.
3.4 Research tool
3.4.1 Questionnaire
In this study, it will use questionnaires to collect data and information. As questionnaire is a structured investigation approach, expressions of the questions, orders of the questions, ways of answering the questions are fixed, so researchers will bring no subjective bias to the investigation, and questionnaire is beneficial for researchers to collect large amounts of data in a relatively short period of time, and results collected through questionnaires are easy for data statistics (Creswell 2003). Disadvantage of using questionnaires includes that, some studies need to understand respondents’ intention, motivation and thought process, and questions of questionnaire are often ineffective in obtaining these results, and designing questions to acquire answers of these kinds is more difficult. Questionnaires are usually completed by respondents, if they do not fill out the questionnaires based on what they really think, it is likely to lead to unreliable investigation results (Creswell, 2003).
100 copies of questionnaires will be distributed, the objects will be Chinese students of post-1990 generation studying in the universities in the UK and they should have at least a time of experience of traveling in the UK. The questionnaire will be distributed primarily through two kinds of ways, one is distributed and collected through the network. The questionnaires will be posted on the questionnaire survey website: SurveyMonkey, while the author will publish the link of questionnaire through the forums that Chinese students in UK often visit, the author’s Facebook, Twitter, Instangram, etc., to attract and encourage more Chinese students to go to fill out the questionnaire. The other is distributed and collected by a field way, the locations for distributing the questionnaires will be the University of Sheffield, University of Newcastle, University of Southampton, etc., in which there are the largest number of Chinese students. The author will go to the campus of the universities to invite Chinese students to fill out the questionnaires, all participants will be given a small gift which is worth of £ 2, all completed questionnaires will immediately recovered at the scene.
Content of the questionnaire is divided into four parts. The first part introduces the purpose, significance of the questionnaire, as well as how to fill in the questionnaire. It announces that the results of this survey will not divulge any personal information and the information will not be used for commercial purposes. The second part is designed to understand respondents’ views on their tourism motivation, contents of this part will be designed based on push-pull model and travel career ladder theory. The third part of the questionnaire investigates respondents' age, educational background, gender and other related personal information. The fourth part expresses gratitude to respondents involved in the survey. The specific content of the questionnaire is shown in Appendix 1. The answers to the questionnaire will be expressed by using Likert scale, 1-5 represents strongly disagree to strongly agree.
Push Factors Travel Career Ladder Theory Question
Self-realization Q1: You travel for enriching your world of spirit horizons, do you agree?
Q2: You travel for realizing your dreams, do you agree?
Self-development Q3: You travel for acquiring knowledge and expanding horizons, do you agree?
Q4: You travel for contributing to learning, do you agree?
Interpersonal relationship Q5: You travel for promoting feelings with your partner or friends, do you agree?
Q6: You travel for meeting new friends, do you agree?
Stimulation Q7: You travel for seeking excitement and adventure activities, do you agree?
Q8: You travel for killing time, do you agree?
Relaxation Q9: You travel for easing learning pressure, do you agree?
Q10: You travel for shopping, do you agree?
Q11: You travel for sightseeing and experiencing different cultural customs, do you agree?
Pull Factors Self-realization Q1: You travel for enjoy unique culture, history, religion, art of a tourism destination, do you agree?
Q2: You often choose a destination with a long history, a worldwide influence, natural and cultural landscape that you have long admired for traveling, do you agree?
Self-development Q3: You travel for learning knowledge relating to your major or future work, do you agree?
Q4: You travel for meeting unique landscapes and people, do you agree?
Interpersonal relationship
Q5: You often choose a destination that youth like to go to, do you agree?
Q6: You often choose a destination with good conditions for surf the Internet, do you agree?
Q7: You often choose a destination in which parties and activities for youth are organized, do you agree?
Stimulation Q8: You often choose a destination with challenges, do you agree?
Q9: You often choose a destination in which extreme sports, adventure activities can be carried out, do you agree?
Relaxation Q10: You often choose a destination with unique cultural customs, do you agree?
Q11: You travel for beautiful natural scenery of a tourism destination, do you agree?#p#分页标题#e#
Q12: You travel for good security conditions of a tourism destination, do you agree?
Q13: You travel for good transport facilities of a tourism destination, do you agree?
Q14: You travel for good accommodation conditions of a tourism destination, do you agree?
Q15: You travel for lower level of consumption of a tourism destination, do you agree?
Table 1: Questionnaire based on travel career ladder theory and push-pull model
3.4.2 Interview
Considering qualitative research, information in this study will be collected through semi-structured interview. The semi-structured interview is carried out base on a broad-brush interview outline. There are only rough basic requirements for each question. Interviewers can flexibly make necessary adjustments based on the actual situation of interview, and there is no specific requirements for orders of each question, ways of how interviewees answer each question, ways of recording the interview process, time and place of carrying out interview, etc., interviewers can flexibly determine according to real situation. Semi-structured interview has the advantage of more flexibility in interview process, interviewers can have a comprehensive, in-depth understanding about what they aim to investigate, they can acquire rich social background information related to their research questions, as well as interviewees’ psychology and thinking process in particular circumstances. The disadvantage includes consuming of much time, generally small sample size and difficulties in quantifying the results of interviews (Creswell, 2003).
It will determine five interviewees for the semi-structured interview, each interviewee will be from various universities in UK, after acquiring the respondents’ consent, the interview process will be recorded. The interview will be conducted by using Skype software, interview of each time will last about 20 minutes. Before each interview, the author will briefly introduce the purpose, content of the interview to each interviewee, then, the author will begin the interview based on the interview outline. Finally, the author will ask the interviewees whether they have some supplement and reaffirm whether they will allow the author to use the results of the interviews, expressing gratitude to the respondents again. The semi-structured interview outline will include four questions to explore the interviewees’ tourism motivations and psychological thinking process related to tourism motivations. Specific content of the interview outline can be found in Appendix 2.
3.5 Data processing
In this study, it will use SPSS 20.0 for quantitative data analysis. There are three steps in the quantitative data analysis process. First is to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. It will use confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the questionnaire. It will use α to analyze the reliability of the questionnaire, α > 0.7, indicating that the reliability of the questionnaire is satisfactory. Second is the descriptive statistical analysis for the data to understand the mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage, based on respondents' scoring to evaluate the respondents’ tourism motivations, including what motivations are admitted by Chinese students, what motivations are not approved. The evaluation criteria are developed based on Best’s (1997) research results. Finally, T test and variance analysis will be used to understand whether there is a significant statistical difference between various tourism motivations, which tourism motivation is the most important, and which is less important, which is the most unimportant. 
1.00-1.80 1.81-2.61 2.62-3.41 3.42-4.21 4.22-5.00
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Table 2: Evaluation standard of descriptive statistics
Qualitative data analysis in this study will be based on tourism motivation theory, empirical research results of push-pull model, and results of quantitative analysis of this study. The analysis method will be analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and comparative analysis, it will analyze the semi-structured interview results from three levels: the respondents’ tourism motivations, reasons leading to the tourism motivations, impact of different tourism motivations on respondents. While the results of interviews and the questionnaire results will be compared to see if the data and information acquired through the two methods are consistent, if not, it will analyze the reasons.
3.6 Research ethics
The author guarantees that research results acquired in this study will be used only in this study and will not be used for other commercial purposes. The author will protect individual privacy of the research objected involved in this study by adoption of an anonymous way in the questionnaire survey to avoid any leakage of personal information. In the data analysis process, the researcher will uphold an objective and neutral attitude, no individual or subjective view will be impose on respondents to avoid deviation of research results. The author will be personally involved in all data collection and analysis process, by repeatedly checking of the data entry, analysis, statistics process to ensure that results of this study can be accurate.  
3.7 Research schedule
The research schedule for this study is designed as follow. 
Number Task Time Days
1 Introduction 9.10-9.14 4
2 Literature review 9.15-9.25 10
3 Methodology 9.26-9.28 3
4 Questionnaire 9.29-10.08 10
5 Semi-structured interview 10.09-10.16 7
6 Data processing 10.17-10.21 5
7 Discussion 10.22-10.25 10
8 First submitting 10.26-10.26 1
9 Amending 10.27-11.6 10
10 Second submitting 11.07-11.07 1
11 Amending 11.8-11.17 10
12 Editing and binding 11.18-11.20 3
13 Final submitting 11.21-11.21 1
Total 75
Table 3: Research schedule
4.0 Conclusion
By the end of 2015, there were 110,000 Chinese students of the post-1990 generation studying in universities in the UK, Chinese students of this part have strong spending power, they also have a high interest and enthusiasm towards the UK's culture, society and even commodity. Compared with Chinese students studied in UK in the past, the post-1990 generation has their own characteristics. Thus, to explore the special tourism motivations of the post-1990 generation studying in the UK will help relevant local tourism enterprises and organizations in the UK in carrying out targeted marketing activities and providing services as well as help relevant organizations to better help Chinese students to adapt to their studying and living in the UK. In this study, it is based on the push-pull model, travel career ladder theory, through combining quantitative with qualitative research methods to better understand what tourism motivations that Chinese students of the post-1990 generation have and why they have such motivations in traveling in the UK, as well as how to motivate Chinese students’ tourism motivation. The study will use questionnaire and semi-structured interview in data collection, the data analysis methods used include T test, variance analysis and analytic hierarchy process and so on. The study is expected to cost a total of 75 days, while the ethical issues which might be encountered in the course of the study will be handled by using appropriate measures.#p#分页标题#e#
 
References
Bao, Y. F. (2009). Study on travel motivation of elderly in Hangzhou – based on "push-pull" theory. Tourism Tribune, 24(11), 47-51.
Best, J.W. (1997). Research in education. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Caber, M. and Albayrak, T. (2016). Push or pull? Identifying rock climbing tourists' motivations. Tourism Management, 55(8), 74-84.
Chen, L. J. and Chen, W. P. (2015). Push–pull factors in international birders' travel. Tourism Management, 48(6), 416-425.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: International Educational and Professional Publisher.
Devesa, M., Laguna, M. and Palacios, A. (2010). The role of motivation in visitor satisfaction: Empirical evidence in rural tourism. Tourism Management, 31(4), 547-552.
Heo, C. Y. and Lee, S. (2016). Examination of student loyalty in tourism and hospitality programs: A comparison between the United States and Hong Kong. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 18(6), 69-80.
Huang, J. Z. and Cai, L. A. (2011). Destination choice model for transitional travel: College students in China. Tourism Management, 32(3), 697-699.
Lin, Y. H., Lee, Y. C. and Wang, S. C. (2012). Analysis of motivation, travel risk, and travel satisfaction of Taiwan undergraduates on work and travel overseas programmes: developing measurement scales. Tourism Management Perspectives, 2–3(4-7), 35-46.
Lu, J., Hung, K., Wang, L., Schuett, M. A. and Hu, L. (2016). Do perceptions of time affect outbound-travel motivations and intention? An investigation among Chinese seniors. Tourism Management, 53(4), 1-12.
Mitra, R. and Buliung, R. N. (2015). Exploring differences in school travel mode choice behaviour between children and youth. Transport Policy, 42(8), 4-11.
Mohamed, N. and Othman, N. (2012). Push and pull factor: determining the visitors satisfactions at Urban Recreational Area. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 49, 175-182.
Munar, A. M. and Jacobsen, J. K. S. (2014). Motivations for sharing tourism experiences through social media. Tourism Management, 43(8), 46-54.
Naidoo, P., Ramseook-Munhurrun, P., Seebaluck, N.V. and Janvier, S. (2015). Investigating the motivation of baby boomers for adventure tourism. Procedia - social and behavioral sciences, 175(12), 244-251. 
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007). Research methods for business students (4th, ed.).Essex, Pearson Education Limited.
Seebaluck, N.V., Munhurrun, P.R., Naidoo, P. and Rughoonauth, P. (2015). An analysis of the push and pull motives for choosing mauritius as “the” wedding destination. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 175(12), 201-209.
Thrane, C. (2016). Students' summer tourism: determinants of length of stay (LOS). Tourism Management, 54(6), 178-184.
Williams, J. A. and McNeil, K. R. (2012). A modified travel career ladder model for understanding academic travel behaviors. Journal' of Behavioral Studies in Business, 1-10.
Department for Culture, Media & Sport and Helen Grant. (2014). Record year for UK tourism industry as spend breaks £21 billion. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/record-year-for-uk-tourism-industry-as-spend-breaks-21-billion (accessed on August 15, 2016).
Higher education statistics agency. (2015). International (non-UK) students in UK HE in 2014-15. Available from:
http://institutions.ukcisa.org.uk//Info-for-universities-colleges--schools/Policy-research--statistics/Research--statistics/International-students-in-UK-HE/ (accessed on August 15, 2016).
 
Appendix 1 Questionnaire
Dear participant! 
We are implementing a study on tourism motivation of Chinese students studying in the United Kingdom. Therefore, we will greatly appreciate if you can finish the following questionnaire which may take you about 10 minutes.
Your participations subject to privacy policies and will be handled anonymously. We sincerely thank you for your collaboration!
Part I: In the following questions, five degrees are used to reflect your answers to each question, please tick the option that can reflect your true opinion most.
Push factors
Q1: You travel for enriching your world of spirit horizons, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q2: You travel for realizing your dreams, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q3: You travel for acquiring knowledge and expanding horizons, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q4: You travel for contributing to learning, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q5: You travel for promoting feelings with your partner or friends, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q6: You travel for meeting new friends, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q7: You travel for seeking excitement and adventure activities, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q8: You travel for killing time, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
□#p#分页标题#e#
Q9: You travel for easing learning pressure, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q10: You travel for shopping, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q11: You travel for sightseeing and experiencing different cultural customs, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Pull factors
Q1: You travel for enjoying unique culture, history, religion, art of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q2: You travel for beautiful natural scenery of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q3: You travel for learning knowledge relating to your major or future work, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q4: You travel for meeting unique landscapes and people, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q5: You often choose a destination that youth like to go to, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q6: You often choose a destination with good conditions for surf the Internet, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q7: You often choose a destination in which parties and activities for youth are organized, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q8: You often choose a destination with challenges, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q9: You often choose a destination in which extreme sports, adventure activities can be carried out, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q10: You often choose a destination with unique cultural customs, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q11: You travel for beautiful natural scenery of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 #p#分页标题#e#5
Q12: You travel for good security conditions of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q13: You travel for good transport facilities of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q14: You travel for good accommodation conditions of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
Q15:You travel for lower level of consumption of a tourism destination, do you agree? Totally disagree--------Totally agree
1 2 3 4 5
 
Personal Information
1. Your age?
A. 18-24 □ B. 25-30  □
C. More than 31 □
2. Your gender?
A. Male       □ B. Female  □
3. Your education background?
A. Master's degree       □ B. Bachelor degree       □
C. Doctoral degree         □ D. Other academic qualifications  □
4. Your major?
A. Finance      □ B. Economics     □
C. Management    □ D. HRM    □
E. Mathematics    □ F. History   □
G. Tourism       □ H. Trade    □
I. Accounting     □ J. Other major  □
5. Your costs on traveling?
A. Less than 500 pounds  □ B. 500-1000 pounds          □
C. 1000-2000 pounds      □ D. More than 2000 pounds     □
6. How many times have you traveled in UK?
A. Less than 3 times.  □ B. More than 5 times.          □
C. 6-10 times     □ D. More than 11 times.     □
 
Thank you for your cooperation!
 
 
Appendix 2 Interview Outline
1. What is your motivation of traveling in the UK? 
2. Why do you have such motivation?
3. Do you have some other motivations, what are they?
4. Does your traveling experience in the UK satisfy your tourism motivation?
 
此论文免费


如果您有论文代写需求,可以通过下面的方式联系我们
点击联系客服
推荐内容